Sampling design, stringency, and statistical significance are critical to the evaluation of indicators or surrogates in the assurance of food safety. General ideal qualities of indicators and surrogates are valuable starting points when developing a safety program. The importance of selecting the significant target pathogen for the specific product, its source, handling practices, and distribution practices cannot be overemphasized. The same is true for selection of the indicator or surrogate to represent those pathogens. The use and limitations of indicators and surrogates to determine or validate treatment effectiveness have been delineated.
Challenges are identified for selection of an indicator or surrogate for the specific situation and conditions of an individual produce item, including growing, harvesting, processing, handling, storage, and packaging. Volume 2 , Issue s1. The full text of this article hosted at iucr. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username.
Modern Food Microbiology by Jay, James M
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Visit Aspen's Internet site for more information resources, directories, articles, and a searchable version of Aspen's full catalog, including the most recent publications: www. Preface The sixth edition of Modern Food Microbiology, like the previous edition, focuses on the general biology of the microorganisms that are found in foods. Thus, the contents are suitable for its use in a second or subsequent course in a microbiology curriculum, or as a primary food microbiology course in a food science or food technology curriculum.
Although organic chemistry is a desirable prerequisite, it is not necessary for one to get a good grasp of the topics covered. When used as a microbiology text, the following sequence has been found to be suitable. A synopsis of the information in Chapter 1 will provide students with a sense of the historical developments that have shaped this discipline and how it continues to evolve. Memorization of the many dates and events is not recommended since much of this information is presented again in the respective chapters.
The material in Chapter 2 is designed to provide a brief background on microorganisms in nature with emphasis on those that are important in foods. This material can be combined with the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of growth in Chapter 3 as they exist in food products and as they affect the common foodborne organisms.
Chapters 4 to 9 deal with specific food products and they may be covered to the extent desired with appropriate reviews of the relevant topics in Chapter 3. The food preservation methods in Chapters 13 to 19 include information that goes beyond the usual scope of a second course. Chapters 14 and 19 are new to the sixth edition. Chapter 14 consolidates information from the previous edition that was scattered throughout several chapters, and it contains much new information on modified atmosphere packaging. Chapter 19 covers high pressure and pulsed electric field processing of foods, and it contains two sections taken from the chapter on high temperature processing in the previous edition.
Chapters 20 and 21 deal with food sanitation, indicator organisms, and the HACCP system, and coverage of these topics is suggested before dealing with the pathogens. Chapters 22 to 31 deal with the known and some suspected foodborne pathogens including their biology and methods of control. Chapter 22 is also new to this edition and it is intended to provide an overview of the chapters that follow.
The material in this chapter that deals with mechanisms of pathogenesis is probably best dealt with when the specific pathogens are covered in their respective chapters. The remainder is meant for reference purposes. Citations for new and updated material can be found in the Reference lists at the end of the chapters. The following individuals assisted me by critiquing various parts or sections of the sixth edition, and I pay my special thanks to each: P.
Druggan, P. Feng, R. Gravani, D. Henning, YJ. Lee, J. Seiter, L. Shelef, J. Sofos, A. Wong, and A. Those who assisted me with the previous five editions are acknowledged in the respective editions. Contents Preface Historical Background History of Microorganisms in Food Habitats, Taxonomy, and Growth Parameters Taxonomy, Role, and Significance of Microorganisms in Foods Microorganisms in Foods Fresh Meats and Poultry Processed Meats Fermentation and Fermented Dairy Products Miscellaneous Food Products Contents vii Part IV.
Modern food microbiology
Culture, Microscopic, and Sampling Methods Physical, Chemical, Molecular, and Immunological Methods Bioassay and Related Methods Food Preservation with Chemicals Food Preservation with Modified Atmospheres Contents ix Effect of Freezing on Microorganisms Preservation of Foods by Drying Other Food Preservation Methods Indicators of Food Microbial Quality and Safety Foodborne Diseases Introduction to Foodborne Pathogens Staphylococcal Gastroenteritis Foodborne Listeriosis Contents xi Persistence of L.
Foodborne Gastroenteritis Caused by Salmonella and Shigella Foodborne Gastroenteritis Caused by Escherichia coli Foodborne Animal Parasites PART I Historical Background The material in this part provides a glimpse of some of the early events that ultimately led to the recognition of the significance and role of microorganisms in foods. Food microbiology as a defined subdiscipline does not have a precise beginning. Some of the early findings and observations are noted, along with dates. The selective lists of events noted for food preservation, food spoilage, food poisoning, and food legislation are meant to be guideposts in the con- tinuing evolution and development of food microbiology.
An excellent and more detailed review of the history of food microbiology has been presented by Hartman. Hartman, P. The evolution of food microbiology. In Food Microbiology—Fundamentals and Frontiers, eds. P Doyle, L. Beuchat, and TJ. Montville, Washington, D. CHAPTER 1 History of Microorganisms in Food Although it is extremely difficult to pinpoint the precise beginnings of human awareness of the presence and role of microorganisms in foods, the available evidence indicates that this knowledge preceded the establishment of bacteriology or microbiology as a science.
The era prior to the establishment of bacteriology as a science may be designated the prescientific era. This era may be further divided into what has been called the food-gathering period and the food-producing period. The former covers the time from human origin over 1 million years ago up to 8, years ago. During this period, humans were presumably carnivorous, with plant foods coming into their diet later in this period. It is also during this period that foods were first cooked.
The food-producing period dates from about 8, to 10, years ago and, of course, includes the present time. It is presumed that the problems of spoilage and food poisoning were encountered early in this period. With the advent of prepared foods, the problems of disease transmission by foods and of faster spoilage caused by improper storage made their appearance.
Spoilage of prepared foods apparently dates from around BC. The first boiler pots are thought to have originated in the Near East about 8, years ago. Salted meats, fish, fat, dried skins, wheat, and barley are also known to have been associated with this culture. Milk, butter, and cheese were used by the Egyptians as early as BC. Mummification and preservation of foods were related technologies that seem to have influenced each other's development. Wines are known to have been prepared by the Assyrians by BC. Fermented sausages were prepared and consumed by the ancient Babylonians and the people of ancient China as far back as BC.
Jensen7 has pointed out that the use of oils leads to high incidences of staphylococcal food poisoning.
Modern Food Microbiology
The Romans excelled in the preservation of meats other than beef by around BC and are known to have used snow to pack prawns and other perishables, The practice of smoking meats as a form of preservation is presumed to have emerged sometime during this period, as did the making of cheese and wines.
It is doubtful whether people at this time understood the nature of these newly found preservation techniques. It is also doubtful whether the role of foods in the transmission of disease or the danger of eating meat from infected animals was recognized. Few advances were apparently made toward understanding the nature of food poisoning and food spoilage between the time of the birth of Christ and AD Ergot poisoning caused by Claviceps purpurea, a fungus that grows on rye and other grains caused many deaths during the Middle Ages.
Over 40, deaths due to ergot poisoning were recorded in France alone in AD , but it was not known that the toxin of this disease was produced by a fungus. In , a compulsory slaughter and inspection order was issued for public abattoirs in Augsburg. Although people were aware of quality attributes in meats by the thirteenth century, it is doubtful that there was any knowledge of the causal relationship between meat quality and microorganisms.
Perhaps the first person to suggest the role of microorganisms in spoiling foods was A. Kircher, a monk, who as early as examined decaying bodies, meat, milk, and other substances and saw what he referred to as "worms" invisible to the naked eye. Kircher's descriptions lacked precision, however, and his observations did not receive wide acceptance. In , L. Spallanzani showed that beef broth that had been boiled for an hour and sealed remained sterile and did not spoil. Spallanzani performed this experiment to disprove the doctrine of the spontaneous generation of life. However, he did not convince the proponents of the theory because they believed that his treatment excluded oxygen, which they felt was vital to spontaneous generation.
In , Schwann showed that heated infusions remained sterile in the presence of air, which he supplied by passing it through heated coils into the infusion. The same may be said of D. Papin and G. Leibniz, who hinted at the heat preservation of foods at the turn of the eighteenth century. The event that led to the discovery of canning had its beginnings in , when the French government offered a prize of 12, francs for the discovery of a practical method of food preservation.
In , a Parisian confectioner, Frangois Nicholas Appert, succeeded in preserving meats in glass bottles that had been kept in boiling water for varying periods of time. This discovery was made public in , when Appert was issued a patent for his process. This, of course, was the beginning of canning as it is known and practiced today.
Pasteur demonstrated the role of microorganisms in the spoilage of French wines, a development that gave rise to the rediscovery of bacteria.
Leeuwenhoek in the Netherlands had examined bacteria through a microscope and described them in , but it is unlikely that Appert was aware of this development, as he was not a scientist and Leeuwenhoek's report was not available in French. The first person to appreciate and understand the presence and role of microorganisms in food was Pasteur. In , he showed that the souring of milk was caused by microorganisms, and in about he used heat for the first time to destroy undesirable organisms in wine and beer.
This process is now known as pasteurization. Food Preservation — Canning of vinegar was introduced by a Swedish chemist. Kensett and E. Daggett were granted a U. Fastier was given a French patent for the use of brine bath to raise the boiling temperature of water. Goldner and J. Wertheimer were issued British patents for brine baths based on Fastier's method. Benjamin in England for freezing foods by immersion in an ice and salt brine.
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Winslow in Maine. Elliott introduced canning to Australia. Chevallier-Appert obtained a patent for sterilization of food by autoclaving. Heating to remove undesirable organisms was introduced commercially in Solomon introduced the use of brine baths to the United States. Eggs followed in The first from New Zealand to England was sent in Coit in New Jersey. Metchnikoff and co-workers isolated and named one of the yogurt bacteria, Lactobacillus bulgaricus.
Plank, E. Ehrenbaum, and K. The "general method" for calculating thermal processes was published by Bigelow, Bohart, Richardson, and Ball; the method was simplified by CO. Ball in Proctor in the United States was the first to employ the use of ionizing radiation to preserve hamburger meat.
Approval was rescinded in The second became operational in in Florida. Food and Drug Administration for food use. Food Spoilage — Kircher demonstrated the occurrence of bacteria in milk; Bondeau did the same in Pasteur's Etude sur Ie Vin was published. Prescott and W. Underwood traced the spoilage of canned corn to improper heat processing for the first time. Food Poisoning —The German poet Justinus Kerner described "sausage poisoning" which in all probability was botulism and its high fatality rate.
Taylor of Penrith, England. Denys was the first to associate staphylococci with food poisoning. The first case of diphyllobothriasis was recognized. Bier and E. Fujino of Japan. Duncan and D. Koupal and R.
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Earlier outbreaks occurred in Czechoslovakia and Australia Food Legislation —The first national meat inspection law was enacted. It required the inspection of meats for export only. Federal Food and Drug Act was passed by Congress.
Compulsory Poultry and Poultry Products law was enacted. Food and Drug Administration approved the use of irradiation for the preservation of bacon. Wholesome Meat Act was passed by Congress and enacted into law on December Food and Drug Administration established an allowable level of 20 ppb of aflatoxin for edible grains and nuts. They were repealed in Bishop, RW. Who introduced the tin can? Nicolas Appert?
Peter Durand? Bryan Donkin? Food Technol 32 4 Brandly, RJ. Migaki, and K. Taylor, Meat Hygiene. Cowell, N. Food Technol 49 12 Farrer, K. Who invented the brine bath? Food Technol. Goldblith, S. A condensed history of the science and technology of thermal processing. Joslyn, and J. Introduction to Thermal Processing of Foods, vol. Jensen, L. Man's Foods, chaps. Champaign, IL: Garrard Press. Pederson, C S. Microbiology of Food Fermentations. Schormiiller, J. Die Erhaltung der Lebensmittel. Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke Verlag. Stewart, G. Introduction to Food Science and Technology, chap. New York: Academic Press.
Tanner, F. The Microbiology of Foods, 2d ed. Food-Borne Infections and Intoxications. PART II Habitats, Taxonomy, and Growth Parameters Many changes in the taxonomy of foodborne organisms have been made during the past decade, and they are reflected in Chapter 2 along with the primary habitats of some organisms of concern in foods. See the following for more information: Deak,T. Handbook of Food Spoilage Yeasts. Detection, enumeration, and identification of foodborne yeasts. Doyle, M. Beuchat, TJ. Montville, eds. Food Microbiology—Fundamentals and Frontiers. Food spoilage as well as foodborne pathogens are covered in this page work along with general growth parameters.
Microorganisms in Foods. All of the foodborne pathogens are covered in this page work with details on growth parameters. Well referenced. CHAPTER 2 Taxonomy, Role, and Significance of Microorganisms in Foods Because human food sources are of plant and animal origin, it is important to understand the biological principles of the microbial biota associated with plants and animals in their natural habitats and respective roles. Although it sometimes appears that microorganisms are trying to ruin our food sources by infecting and destroying plants and animals, including humans, this is by no means their primary role in nature.
In our present view of life on this planet, the primary function of microorganisms in nature is self-perpetuation. During this process, the heterotrophs carry out the following general reaction: All organic matter carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, etc. This, of course, is essentially nothing more than the operation of the nitrogen cycle and the cycle of other elements Figure The microbial spoilage of foods may be viewed simply as an attempt by the food biota to carry out what appears to be their primary role in nature.
This should not be taken in the teleological sense. In spite of their simplicity when compared to higher forms, microorganisms are capable of carrying out many complex chemical reactions essential to their perpetuation. To do this, they must ob- tain nutrients from organic matter, some of which constitutes our food supply. If one considers the types of microorganisms associated with plant and animal foods in their natural states, one can then predict the general types of microorganisms to be expected on this particular food product at some later stage in its history. Results from many laboratories show that untreated foods may be expected to contain varying numbers of bacteria, molds, or yeasts, and the question often arises as to the safety of a given food product based on total microbial numbers.
The question should be twofold: What is the total number of microorganisms present per gram or milliliter and what types of organisms are represented in this number? It is necessary to know which organisms are associated with a particular food in its natural state and which of the organisms present are not normal for that particular food. It is, therefore, of value to know the general distribution of bacteria in nature and the general types of organisms normally present under given conditions where foods are grown and handled.
Many of the new taxa have been created as a result of the employment of molecular genetic Nitrogen Atmospheric Nitrogen fixation Denitrification Atmospheric nitrogen fixed by many microorganisms, e. Ctostridium, Azotobacter etc. Reduction of nitrates to gaseous nitrogen by bacteria, e. Source: From Microbiology by MJ. Pelczar and R. The methods that are the most powerful as bacterial taxonomic tools are outlined and briefly discussed below.
First, the prokaryotic ribosome is a 70S Svedberg unit, which is composed of two separate functional subunits: 5OS and 30S. When the singlestranded DNA is made in the presence of dideoxynucleotides, DNA fragments of various sizes result that can be sequenced by the Sanger method.
It was through studies of 16S rRNA sequences that led Woese and his associates to propose the establishment of three kingdoms of life-forms: Eukaryotes, Archaebacteria, and Prokaryotes. The last include the cyanobacteria and the eubacteria, with the bacteria of importance in foods being eubacteria. Sequence similarities of 16S rRNA are widely employed, and some of the new foodborne taxa were created primarily by its use along with other information. Nucleotide catalogs of 16S rRNA have been prepared for a number of organisms, and exten- sive libraries exist.
Sequences -mers of bases are produced and separated, and similarities SAB Dice-type coefficient between organisms can be compared. The sequencing of 16S rRNA by reverse transcriptase is preferred to oligonucleotide cataloging, as longer stretches of rRNA can be sequenced.
The latter group is referred to as the Clostridium branch of the eubacterial tree. It has been noted that the ideal reference system for bacterial taxonomy would be the complete DNA sequence of an organism. In the meantime, changes in the extant taxa may be expected to continue to occur. Some of the important genera known to occur in foods are listed below in alphabetical order. Some are desirable in certain foods; others bring about spoilage or cause gastroenteritis. Each genus has its own particular nutritional requirements, and each is affected in predictable ways by the parameters of its environment.
Eight environmental sources of organisms to foods are listed below, and these, along with the genera of bacteria and protozoa noted, are presented in Table to reflect their primary food-source environments. Soil and Water. These two environments are placed together because many of the bacteria and fungi that inhabit both have a lot in common.
Soil organisms may enter the atmosphere by the action of wind and later enter water bodies when it rains. They also enter water when rainwater flows over soils into bodies of water. Aquatic organisms can be deposited onto soils through the actions of cloud formation and subsequent rainfall.
This common cycling results in soil and aquatic organisms being one and the same to a large degree. Some aquatic organisms, however, are unable to persist in soils, especially those that are indigenous to marine waters. Alteromonas spp. The bacterial biota of seawater is essentially gram negative, and gram-positive bacteria exist there essentially only as transients. Contaminated water has been implicated in Cyclospora contamination of fresh raspberries. Plants and Plant Products. It may be assumed that many or most soil and water organisms contaminate plants.
However, only a relatively small number find the plant environment suitable to their overall well-being. Those that persist on plant products do so by virtue of a capacity to adhere to plant surfaces so that they are not easily washed away and because they are able to obtain their nutritional requirements. Notable among these are the lactic acid bacteria and some yeasts. Among others that are commonly asso- ciated with plants are bacterial plant pathogens in the genera Corynebacterium, Curtobacterium, Pseudomonas, and Xanthomonas, and fungal pathogens among several genera of molds.
Food Utensils. When vegetables are harvested in containers and utensils, one would expect to find some or all of the surface organisms on the products to contaminate contact surfaces. As more and more vegetables are placed in the same containers, a normalization of the microbiota would be expected to occur. In a similar way, the cutting block in a meat market along with cutting knives and grinders are contaminated from initial samples, and this process leads to a buildup of organisms, thus ensuring a fairly constant level of contamination of meatborne organisms.
Gastrointestinal Tract. This biota becomes a water source when polluted water is used to wash raw food products. The intestinal biota consists of many organisms that do not persist as long in waters as do others, and notable among these are pathogens such as salmonellae. Any or all of the Enterobacteriaceae may be expected in fecal wastes, along with intestinal pathogens, including the five protozoal species already listed.
Food Handlers. The microbiota on the hands and outer garments of handlers generally reflect the environment and habits of individuals, and the organisms in question may be those from soils, waters, dust, and other environmental sources. Additional important sources are those that are common in nasal cavities and the mouth and on the skin, and those from the gastrointestinal tract that may enter foods through poor personal hygienic practices.
Animal Feeds. This is a source of salmonellae to poultry and other farm animals. In the case of some silage, it is a known source of Listeria monocytogenes to dairy and meat animals. The organisms in dry animal feed are spread throughout the animal environment and may be expected to occur on animal hides. Animal Hides. In the case of milk cows, the types of organisms found in raw milk can be a reflection of the biota of the udder when proper procedures are not followed in milking and of From both the udder and the hide, organisms can contaminate the general environment, milk containers, and the hands of handlers.
Air and Dust. Although most of the organisms listed in Table may at times be found in air and dust in a food-processing operation, the ones that can persist include most of the gram-positive organisms listed. Among fungi, a number of molds may be expected to occur in air and dust along with some yeasts. In general, the types of organisms in air and dust would be those that are constantly reseeded to the environment. Air ducts are not unimportant sources. They are not meant to be used for culture identifications.
Modern food microbiology
For the latter, one or more of the cited references should be consulted. Some of the identifying features of these bacteria are presented in Appendixes A and B. These gram-negative rods show some affinity to the family Neisseriaceae, and some that were formerly achromobacters and moraxellae are placed here. Also, some former acinetobacters are now in the genus Psychrobacter. They differ from the latter and the moraxellae in being oxidase negative. They are strict aerobes that do not reduce nitrates.