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From this group, 54 cases were defined as SCH and the remaining 1, subjects were assigned as euthyroid controls.

Decoding insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome for promising therapeutic intervention

The screening process is shown in Supplementary Figure 1. A normal TSH range in serum was defined as from 0. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed by: 1. Abnormally high GLU was defined as over 6. All mice were fed and allowed to acclimatize for 1 week. The drinking water consumed was estimated using a ml graduated cylinder every 3 days.

We weighed the mice every 2 weeks. Water consumption and the MMI dose were adjusted every 3 days based on the last drinking water measurements and body weights. Following MMI was administration of MMI for 12 weeks the mice were fasted for 6 h and then euthanized using pentobarbital sodium. Serum was collected immediately prior to sacrificing the mice and serum samples were tested for FT3 free triiodothyronine , FT4, and TSH in order to ensure the success of the SCH model.

For the ITT, mice fasted for 5 h were injected intraperitoneally with insulin 1. The area under the curve AUC was calculated. Following MMI administration for 14 weeks, the mice were fasted for 6 h and then euthanized using pentobarbital sodium. Serum samples were collected immediately prior to sacrificing the mice, and tested for insulin and glucose concentrations.

Following verification of the SCH state which was maintained for 2 weeks i. The specific protocols were described previously Following MMI administration for 18 weeks, mice were fasted for 6 h and were then euthanized using pentobarbital sodium.

Original Research ARTICLE

Serum and liver samples were collected and processed as described previously. Serum glucose level was determined using an Olympus AU automatic biochemical analyzer Olympus Co. Data were analyzed using SPSS Differences between the SCH patients and euthyroid controls were compared via the Mann-Whitney U -test or chi-square test. Logistic regression was used to analyze the risk for diabetes in different groups. In the animal studies, differences between means were compared using either an unpaired Student's t -test for two-group comparisons or one-way analysis of variance ANOVA Dunnett's t -test or LSD test for multiple comparisons.

The Shandong Provincial Hospital Animal Care and Use Committee approved the procedures for all animal experiments and the methods were performed according to the approved guidelines. The Shandong Provincial Hospital Animal Care and Use Committee approved the procedures for all animal experiments, and the methods were performed according to the approved guidelines. The work presented here was carried out in collaboration between all authors.

CX and LZ wrote the main manuscript text. LZ and KW performed the experiments. LG and CX conceived of the project and designed the experiments. YL and KW prepared all the animals. DJ and JX prepared data analysis and figures. All authors reviewed the manuscript.

The Metabolic Syndrome (Syndrome X or Insulin-Resistance Syndrome) Research Video

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Supplementary Figure 2. Supplementary Figure 3. Supplementary Figure 4.

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Types of Autoantibodies

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1. Introduction

Effect of insulin resistance in assessing the clinical outcome of clinical and subclinical hypothyroid patients. J Clin Diagn Res. Google Scholar. Insulin resistance and glucose levels in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism. J College Phys Surg Pak. Endoplasmic reticulum stress, obesity and diabetes.

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