If regulatory approval for a particular technique, such as dispersant application, is required, the NEBA discussion provides an opportunity for that technique to be evaluated and pre-approved for spill situations matching the planning scenarios. Should a spill occur, stakeholders only need to verify that the assumptions considered in the NEBA and the pre-approval are still applicable. A total of 19 oil spill simulations corresponding to 19 different locations, were combined with bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, and geomorphological data in this paper to conclude:.
Oil slick trajectories in the Eastern Mediterranean are related to the seabed morphology. This is because strong seabed irregularities, present in the study area, are able to alter the local hydrodynamic regime. Oil spill modelling suggests the most vulnerable areas to be the eastern part of the Levantine Basin, offshore Israel and Lebanon, the Cyprus shorelines and the Egyptian coastline. Shoreline susceptibility varies significantly depending on differences in its morphology, degree of exposure to wave action, on the existence of uplifted wave-cut platforms, coastal lagoons and pools and the presence of tourist and environmentally sensitive zones.
This paper defends that key economic developments in the Eastern Mediterranean make oil spill models more crucial to spill monitoring and mitigation, and new legislative changes have recently made the interaction between Eastern Mediterranean countries more urgent than before. Recent hydrocarbon discoveries make the use of oil pollution dispersion models more than a necessity.
Oil companies, licensed by the Republic of Cyprus to develop testing drills, are obliged to complete an Environmental Impact Study EIA according to national legislation. Oil spill dispersion models are part of this EIA. The EIAs are submitted to the Environmental Committee for approval before the execution of any testing drill.
Strategies and approaches to marine pollution research.
In addition, Israel has in October entered into the Emergency Protocol which accounts for prevention beyond the combating of oil pollution. Based on the results of this paper, we suggest the early deployment of coastal protection teams, following established protocols, in large oil spills accidents.
Due to the significant environmental, social and economic impacts even a small oil spill can bring to the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, continuous improvement of the oil prevention and response capabilities is necessary. This can be achieved through investing in monitoring assets, technological innovation and forecasting models. How to cite this article : Alves, T. Multidisciplinary oil spill modeling to protect coastal communities and the environment of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.
Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Author Contributions T. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Sci Rep. Published online Nov Tiago M.
Effects of the plastic civilization
Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Box , Nicosia, Cyprus. Received May 13; Accepted Oct This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Supplementary Information. Abstract We present new mathematical and geological models to assist civil protection authorities in the mitigation of potential oil spill accidents in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.
Open in a separate window. Figure 1. General map of the study area showing the location of environmentally significant areas, Natura sites in Cyprus, areas of restricted fishing, ports, power plants and recorded oil spill incidents, East of 29 o E, from to Methods The methodology used in this work was developed under the umbrella of European Commission projects concerning oil spill response and predictions www.
Specifically, the basic steps of the methodology applied were: Step 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4.
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Overlay map showing the locations of oil release white circles with numbers of the 19 modeled oil spills, and their dominant trajectories. Results Morphological analyses The results of previous studies 17 , 18 , 19 , 26 strongly support that seabed morphology is able to alter the hydrodynamic regime changing the water circulation pathways and affecting the sedimentary processes.
Shoreline susceptibility analysis In the Eastern Mediterranean, the nature of shoreline sediments is related to the shoreline morphology. Discussion Environmental management of the Eastern Mediterranean as a future energy hub The present work shows that the Eastern Mediterranean Sea presents high risk in terms of oil pollution, rendering the use of oil spill models crucial for the area.
Oil contingency measures Oil transport activity through the Suez Canal and the high environmental and social capital of the Southeast Mediterranean Sea renders the area a high risk for oil pollution. Oil combating measures and net environmental benefit analyses The identification of sensitive resources and priority protection sites, as determined by the sensitivity mapping, provides the site-specific information to inform net environmental benefit analysis NEBA discussions and develop strategies that best meet the objectives of sensitive area protection and the minimization of damage.
At present, the types of response resources that should be described include, but are not limited to: Spill response equipment booms, skimmers, barges, skimming vessels, etc. Conclusions A total of 19 oil spill simulations corresponding to 19 different locations, were combined with bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, and geomorphological data in this paper to conclude: Oil slick trajectories in the Eastern Mediterranean are related to the seabed morphology.
Additional Information How to cite this article : Alves, T. Supplementary Material Supplementary Information: Click here to view. Supplementary Information: Click here to view.
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Footnotes Author Contributions T. References Ferraro G.
Long term monitoring of oil spills in European seas. Sensing 30 , — Working Paper No. Goldman R. Oil spill contamination probability in the southeastern Levantine basin. Prospects of the Refining Sector in the Mediterranean Region. Alves T. A three-step model to assess shoreline and offshore susceptibility to oil spills: The South Aegean Crete as an analogue for confined marine basins. General circulation of the Eastern Mediterranean. On the surface circulation of the Levantine sub-basin derived from Lagrangian drifters and satellite altimetry data. Structure and evolution of warm core eddies in the eastern Mediterranean Levantine Basin.
Deep-Sea Res. II 52 , — Interannual Changes in the Thermohaline Structure of the south eastern Mediterranean. Mer Medit. Satellite-derived spatial and temporal biological variability in the Cyprus Eddy.
In these coasts, marine dynamics —with the arrival of surface waters from the Strait of Gibraltar- could favour the emergence of microplastics coming from the Atlantic Ocean. In Murcia, the highest concentration is in Cartagena The diversity of microplastics in the sea regarding composition and color, as well as differences in concentration, show different origins and volume depending on the analysed area of the coast, according to the authors.
Plastics do not always behave the same way, and that is why it is hard to know generically their final destination in the marine environment. When talking of a microplastic, dynamics are more complex. The study describes for the first time the aggregate potential of microplastics to integrate into marine organics, formed by organic and mineral-derived particles. This interaction —described so far in the laboratory only- is a phenomenon that occurs naturally in the marine environment, as stated in the new study. This process could ease the drowning and accumulation of light microplastics in marine floors, an environment far from the only agent able to deteriorate them: the solar ultraviolet radiation.
Usually, plastics that float in the marine surface are eaten by marine organisms, which may think they are food. Even zooplankton is able to eat microplastics and throw them through faecal pellets. This is a known situation —and not enough studied- in marine ecosystems. Also, apart from additives they contain per se, microplastics can bring toxic compounds to the trophic chain in marine waters metals, organic pollutants, and others.
Transported by the marine currents, these plastic materials can become dispersal vehicles for invasive species and pathogenic organisms. Climate change, fishing industry, maritime transport, prospection and exploitation of hydrocarbon and industrial dumping are some of the big threats to the future of marine and coastal systems in the Mediterranean. Protecting and improving the environmental quality of the Mediterranean Sea is a priority in the environmental scientific and political European agenda.
In this situation of scientific challenges, experts from the research group on Marine Geosciences of the UB have participated in different international studies that warn about the environmental impact of microparticles in the marine environment. Regarding the Mediterranean, some of the most important resources on environmental protection are the Marine Strategy Framework Directive MSFD and the Barcelona Agreement for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea, signed in and modified in Note: material may have been edited for length and content.
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. Year: Volume: 14 Issue: 16 Page No. Ajayan , M.go here
Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea
Selvaraju and K. Abstract: Microalgae exhibit a number of heavy metal uptake process by different metabolism. In this study, the ability of microalgae for removal of heavy metal from wastewater was studied. Growth and biochemical contents of microalgae were determined by spectrophotometer. Heavy metal analysis of wastewater effluents were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer before and after treatment at laboratory scale. The growth of Scenedesmus bijuga and Oscillatoria quadripunctulata in sewage wastewater was higher than those grown in synthetic medium.
Whereas, the growth of S. The chlorophyll, carotenoid and protein content of S.